Market Values are defined in terms of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).

The value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (an exit price).

Market Value = Base Value - xVA

See the xVA description on Wikipedia

Valuation Adjustments

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Example of xVA adjustments

Before the Great Financial Crisis, the market valuation was done by market participants following simple assumptions.

After the financial crisis, the nature of the actual risk embedded in financial instruments could not be ignored and the calculations of xVA is therefore required. The relevant adjustments are a consequence of taking into account the counterparty, funding and capital risk.

International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) require these adjustments to be included in the financial reporting of any company following these accounting standards.

Expected Exposure

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Example of exposure calculations

The exposure is crucial for a market consistent valuation. The expectation expresses how the base value of the portfolio are likely to develop from current date until expiry.

This is applied in the quantification of the embedded credit risk between the two parties in the actual trade.

CVA and DVA are measures of the value of embedded credit risk.

Also, FVA is a measure of the cost and benefits of funding the portfolio due to inadequate collateral posting by the parties.

Expected Capital

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Example of capital calculations

Regulatory capital is a legal requirement for financial institutions holding financial instruments.

The Cost of Capital is an essential part when financial institutions enters and evaluates their portfolio of financial instruments, and the term is therefore an important part of the market value embedded in financial instruments.

The entire lifetime capital requirement faced by the bank must be included.

Calculation of expected capital requires calculation of both Counterparty Credit Risk and CVA Capital. approximates this by applying the schematic approach outlined by SA-CCR, FIRB and BA-CVA.


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Example of xVA risk

Risk sensitivities is becomes important as traditional risk measures based on base values are inadequate for capturing the total risk. calculates risk for all xVA adjustments.

The calculation applies a bump-and-run methodology, where each risk factor (interest rate, FX, etc.) is stressed in isolation and a complete re-calculation is performed.

All valuation adjustments (xVA) are re-calculated in all scenarios.
The valuation engine is based on best practices in the financial industry. This includes advanced simulation models and valuation of future cash flows. This is required in order to quantify all relevant valuation adjustments embedded in financial derivatives.
Economic Scenario Generator
The calculation of market values and xVA uses the Economic Scenario Generator as basic building block. The valuation of financial instruments are based on these future market data states. The simulation library contains models for all major risk factor classes, including interest rate curves, equity prices, FX rates, inflation, energy prices, etc..
The valuation can happen for all products as long as their underlying risk factors are contained in the Economic Scenario Generator. offers a simple way of adding plain vanilla trades, which among others include interest rate swaps. The scripting framework allows for very sophisticated trade represantation required by some clients.

American Monte Carlo
The valuation follows the American Monte Carlo technique by applying the Longstaff-Schwartz algorithm. This makes the valuation engine capable of making valuations of even complex pay-off structures.
Risk and Analytics delivers all key results as part of the market valuation. This includes Credit Value Adjustments (CVA), Debt Value Adjustment (DVA), Funding Value Adjustment (FVA) and Capital Value Adjustment (KVA) and also expected exposure and capital profiles.
The calculation engine also includes risk sensitivies for major underlying risk factors (Interest Rates, FX rates, etc.).
Market Data acquires all market data from leading financial data providers including ThomsonReuters and ICAP. All simulation models are implemented and calibrated based on these market data inputs. The users of therefore get access to advanced financial models without spending time on data cleaning and model development.